Teaching the skill of speaking
1- The concept of speech
Mahmoud Kamel the Camel said, Speaking is a productive skill that requires the learner to be able to use sounds accurately, to master the grammatical formulas and the word order system that helps him express what he wants to say in speaking situations, meaning that speech is a perceptual process that includes an impulse to speak, and then a substance to talk, Then a linguistic system by means of which translates the motivation and the content into the form of speech.
2- Aims of teaching the skill of speaking
Mahmoud Ahmad Al-Sayed said, teaching the skill of speaking should achieve these two goals, namely: First, the student must speak the most he can speak; Second, the student should speak as well as possible. Ibrahim Atta said that one of the most important things we aim at in teaching speech is the following:
1) Accustom students to speak fluency and represent meanings.
2) Accustom students to logical thinking, arranging ideas, and linking each other.
3) Developing pupils’ self-confidence by confronting their classmates or outside the school.
4) Enabling students to express what is going on around them in terms of appropriate topics related to their lives, experiences and work inside and outside the school, in sound words.
5) Overcoming some psychological defects that may affect the child when he is young, such as shyness, clamor in speech, or introversion.
6) Increasing the growth of skills and abilities that began to grow among the student in the art of functional expression, including discussion and presentation of ideas and opinions, and the delivery of speeches and speeches.
7) Exposing talented students in the field of rhetoric, improvisation, and expressing speed in words and opinions.
8) Reinforcing the other side of expression, which is the written expression of what the student acquires in terms of linguistic wealth, rhetorical structures, and literary traditions.
9) Refining the conscience and feeling of the learner to become a member of his human group.
10) Promote the learner to the practice of imagination and innovation.
Ali Ahmed Madkour said, if a student transcends the first creation to the second cycle of general education, then the language curriculum should give pupils a full opportunity to develop the following skills in speech:
1- Manners of conversation and discussion, and the way of walking in them.
2- Preparing and managing a seminar.
3- The ability to address or speak on a public topic in front of his colleagues or a group of people.
4- The ability to tell stories and stories.
5- The ability to give instructions and directions.
6- The ability to view reports on actions he or she has carried out.
7- The ability to comment on news, events, and interventions.
8- The ability to sit with people and compliment them with hadeeths.
9 – The ability to present ideas in a logical and convincing manner.
10- The ability to search for facts, information and concepts in their various available sources.
3- Problems of teaching the skill of speaking.
There are a number of problems that scholars have said in teaching speech, especially its teaching to non-Arabic speaking learners. Such as:
A- Few of the teachers were able to speak well and perform well in speaking in the Arabic language. Rather,
there were those who could not speak Arabic, both fluently and glorified. Although they are considered one of the primary means of teaching speech, students very much need a good example in speech by the teacher. If the teacher does not repeatedly speak the learned language, then the dialogue is not between the students. The solution to this problem is for all Arabic language teachers to be equipped with the skill of speaking well, and with the commitment of classical Arabic in all his statements. This requires schools to be able to teach in reciting the Noble Qur’an by recitation and intonation. If it is possible for the school director to attend the Arabic speaking in the education process, because that has a great role in developing the learned Arabic language, even if it is only one, provided that the Arabic-speaking teacher is skilled in the investigation of teaching the Arabic language and it is not enough that he can speak only Arabic.
B – Many students are afraid of failure and do not like to make a mistake or appear stupid in front of their peers when they spoke Arabic while learning
. This is because they think that practicing speaking is more difficult than sitting and listening to the teacher. Here, the teacher must treat that problem, assuring them that the error in speaking, hesitation and standing is a very natural thing, but rather something that cannot be avoided. And the teacher must also direct much of his attention to those who need encouragement and support to overcome these difficulties that stand in the way of the functional ability of speech. The teacher can use fun tools for them, such as language games, to remove these psychological obstacles.
C- The lack of an Arab environment that encourages learners to speak Arabic,
so that they do not have an opportunity to speak or a situation to talk in the environment around them or in the school where they are learning. Although the classroom is very limited, and the speech needs to be refined and continued a lot. It is well known that a student of a foreign language cannot apply the new verbal habits he learns in the classes to daily life, as the children of the language do. Therefore, it is imperative for the teacher to prepare the various and adapted educational devices, and to make language activities in any field.
D- The educational method applied by the teacher is not of much benefit to learners in oral expression.
This is because the teacher has a lot of interest in grammar during education and does not give students much opportunity to speak. Therefore, the learner must apply the method that suits the academic goal, such as the audiovisual method, and it is appropriate for using audiovisual aids for listening and speaking (speech). And to go back to preparing exercises in speech, and coupling to correct errors. It is permitted to use the original or intermediate language, to shorten the time and define the meaning.
E- The difference or similarity between one language and another is in the sounds,
the nature of the language’s structure, the patterns prevailing in it, or the form of writing. Likewise, the difference between the Arabic language and the Indonesian language, meaning the difference in terms of pronunciation and exits of letters, is the major difficulty faced by the language student. Therefore, modern methods of teaching foreign languages with auditory training depend on the spoken language before reading and writing training.
This research is of the type of personal studies and it is one of the types of qualitative research, so the rules that are made up therein follow the rules in qualitative research. In order to obtain information related to the efforts of the beloved Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun in developing the skill of speech at the Institute of Language and Da`wah in the transfer of Basurwan, the research was conducted using the historical method when talking about facts and past events from the biography of Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun in developing the skill of speech. The data of this research were extracted from the interview, observation and documents, and were validated, proportionate and documented by the method of triangulation of data.
- Efforts of Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun in developing the skill of speech
After the search for the efforts of the beloved Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoon in developing the skill of speaking at the Institute of Language and Da`wah was completed by transferring Basurwan, and after the interview process was completed with some of his colleagues, including his colleagues, with whom he founded the Institute of Language and Da`wah and some of his students who had become teachers in it And they are still studying it until now, the researcher obtained the available data and the researcher can present it as follows:
- His own authorship to embody the skill of speaking at the Dar Al-Language and Advocacy Institute
One of his most influential efforts in embodying the skill of speech at the House of Language and Da`wah was by writing four books, which he wrote relying on his experiences for many years in teaching Arabic in various institutes before his institute was established. He started writing a vocabulary book because the key to being able to speak in Arabic is vocabulary availability. To apply these vocabulary, write the dialogues book, which contains examples of everyday speech. To develop this dialogue in unspecified phrases using those vocabulary words, he wrote the book Introduction to Grammar. These books are quasi-unity that is indivisible in his attempts to embody the skill of speaking at the Institute of Language and Advocacy. As for the detailed definition of these books, it is as follows:
- Modern collections in the Arabic language
This book is the first book he wrote before the establishment of his Institute of Language and Da`wah, meaning when he was studying at the YAPI Institute in the year 1970 AD. This book contained vocabulary arranged according to the subject and not according to the alphabetical order in order to facilitate those who wanted to learn the skill of speaking to speak on these topics. In order to upgrade skills in teaching the Arabic language, Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun intensified the memorization of vocabulary, especially the skill of speaking. Therefore, the first book he wrote on teaching the Arabic language was this book, which had most of its vocabulary content. This is what the researcher concluded from saying in the introduction to his book that as follows:
“It was worth writing this book as a resource for students to educate and focus on studying the Arabic language alongside the Arabic books they have, so I collected for them daily words and modern words (words in magazines and newspapers) and wrote for them a variety of correspondence models, lectures and other topics of interest to them so that they could talk about Among them in Arabic, they can write their letters and give their lectures in it, while being able to read Arabic magazines and newspapers. In his saying this, he mentioned his goals in composing all the skills, namely: speech, reading and writing skills, except the skill of listening. In his opinion, all these skills must be based on vocabulary knowledge, because if they do not start from the vocabulary first, the students will never comprehend them.
- Modern conversation in Arabic
This book, according to its name, is intended to develop the skill of speech. It was written by Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun himself in the year 1970 after he wrote his book Modern Collections. This book is an application to use the vocabulary in modern collections in everyday speech as his eminence said about that in his introduction, which is “after that His book, Modern Collections, has spread in the Arabic language, which contains important words in the Arabic language for everyday speech. In the Arabic language in Al-Falaha.
- Daily verbs and nouns words
These two books are a simplification and abbreviation from the book Modern Groups in the Arabic Language written by Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun five years before his move from Banqil to the village of Raji, after he saw the large number of young students who are difficult to memorize the vocabulary of the modern group book which contains five Thousands of items, as Professor Ismail Ayoub explained by saying: “After five years of moving the institute from the city of Banqil to the village of Raji and many young students tried to shorten or simplify the book of modern groups by making it two parts, which are words of verbs and words of nouns.
- Introduction to grammar
The teaching of grammar in this book is directed at developing the skill of speaking. Teach this book to give new pupils the foundations in grammar so that the words they use in their daily communication at the institute have correct structures that match the grammar rules. The study of grammar in this book was very basic, because it was actually composed for those who learn grammar the first time, as it was written to suit the conditions of Indonesians whose daily language is not Arabic. This is to distinguish the grammar book written for Arabs and non-Arabs, because its level of difficulty differs indeed. “Teaching grammar should fit the standard of Indonesians,” he said. Matn al-Ajrumiyya, which is considered a basic book on grammar in his opinion, is still considered difficult for beginners in Indonesia. Therefore, he tries to make Matn al-Ajrوميةmiyya’s book fit the standard of the Indonesians, and rearranged it until it became the book of introduction to grammar.
- Intensification of the linguistic environment by applying the skill of speech
Among his efforts to develop the skill of speaking at the House of Language and Da`wah is the intensive formation of the linguistic environment and make his institute the House of Language and Da`wah as the House of Language, as this appeared in the name of this institute, which is the House of Language and Da`wah, which focuses on the Arabic language only, not on other languages. The students are obliged to live in the residence of the institute and they are not allowed to go out at all except for an urgent need, such as sickness and so on. They are not allowed to carry mobile phones, laptops, and other things that make them play and lazy with them and do not deal with their friends until their communication with the Arabic language is lacking.
Likewise, His Eminence Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun obliged all pupils to wear a uniform in all official activities, such as the teaching and learning process, group prayer in the mosque and when special guests welcome the institute, and so on. This uniform is the white shirt and the white turban for the students and the black shirt and the veil for the schoolgirls. This dress is an Arab dress, because Arabs usually wear it, including our Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace. This dress affects the students’ psyche very much, because they are ashamed of themselves if they do not speak Arabic while they wear Arabic clothes.
Then to intensify that linguistic environment in order for the pupils to continue communicating with the Arabic language, there are several things he did as his efforts to promote these matters, as follows:
1- Encouragement by tongue or direct application
To activate the skill of speaking in the linguistic environment, Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoon encouraged all his pupils, whether by tongue or direct application. An example of encouragement with the tongue is that he said that the Arabic language is a great blessing from God Almighty upon us. The Arabic language is the language of our Prophet Muhammad, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, who loved the Arabic language, as in his following hadith: “Love the Arabs for three: because I am an Arab, and because the Qur’an is Arabic, and because the words People of Paradise are Arab ”(Narrated by Al-Tabarani). Therefore, if you speak the Arabic language to follow and love the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, and because the Arabic language is the language of the Qur’an and the language of the people of Paradise in Heaven, all of that is called following which will be rewarded to you. And you must know that the most human activities every day is speech, so if you speak Arabic from the time you get up from sleep until you fall asleep again with the intention of following the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, what is the greatest reward that you will get. The difference between Arabic and other languages is that the Arabic language touched the noble Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, and not all other languages. Therefore, if you intend to follow the Arabic language, the reward will be doubled.
Beloved Hassan bin Ahmed Baharon quoted another hadith, which is speaking in Arabic as a means of loving the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, as reported in a hadith narrated by Anas, may God be pleased with him: on the authority of Anas, may God be pleased with him, that a man asked the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, about the Hour, and he said: What have you prepared for her? He said: Nothing, except that I love God and His Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace. He said: You are with those you loved. Or another hadith: Anas ibn Malik said, the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, said to me: Oh son, if you are able to become and touch someone, then you do not cheat in your heart, then do. Love me was with me in heaven. Therefore, if we speak in Arabic on the basis of love for the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, who has always spoken in Arabic, he will produce an extraordinary result tomorrow in the hereafter, which is entering Heaven as in the previous hadith of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, which means firstly that whoever spoke In Arabic, with the intention of love, he enters Heaven and secondly, his degree in it is highest, because he was with the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace.
And sometimes, the beloved Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun encouraged direct application by making himself an example to students in speaking Arabic with them always wherever he was, whether in the classroom or outside it, and whether in administration or at home, and whether in the institute or outside it. Professor Shahri Sumouuddin also told him that he said: Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun made himself a better promoter in developing the skill of speaking because he spoke Arabic to all of his students and did not speak anything other than Arabic. He always spoke to them in Arabic wherever he met them in the classroom or outside it or in the room when eating lunch or dinner, whether they understood his words or not, and of course he spoke to them according to their level of ability to speak Arabic.
Then Professor Muhammad Safi added: To develop the skill of speaking in the linguistic environment created by the beloved Hassan bin Ahmed Baharon, he did important things, including that if he met a student, he spoke in Arabic and knew his virtue as much as he could in the Arabic language, so his virtue spoke to him as much as he could. The disciple because he was able to speak with his virtue and his words responded well. And from his attempts, he brought some teachers from the Middle East, such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Egypt and others. The purpose of that is to create the linguistic environment so that the pupils can hear and see the real dialogue and interaction between them, and so on, so that the pupils ’listening skill develops. The final purpose of the development of the skill of listening is also the development of their speaking skill. Because these two skills are not mutually exclusive.
Then from the efforts of Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun in encouraging his pupils to always speak the Arabic language, is that he assures the students that speaking Arabic is easy. The key to this is that you commit yourself to applying it to them, and do not fear mistakes, and do not bother yourself with grammar or morphology. His students emphasized the courage to communicate between them in Arabic, avoiding fear, shame, and so on. As Professor Qaim Al-Din told him in the following: “His virtue was if he studied Arabic for everyone, he tried to make him feel that learning Arabic is easy and he did not want to think that learning Arabic is difficult, especially the ability to communicate.”
Strategies of His Eminence Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun in teaching Arabic so that everyone who learns the Arabic language feels easy. Professor Hassan Basri also talked about this as he said: Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun urged new students to speak Arabic, but without being forced by the rules In grammatical terms, the important thing is to have their courage to speak Arabic first. Therefore, if some of the new students made a mistake when speaking Arabic with him, whether in terms of grammar, morphology, composition or style, he did not correct them as if he did not know them, until after they got used to speaking in Arabic, he corrected those errors gradually according to the students’ conditions because if they were assigned to the linguistic aspects The aforementioned one is afraid to talk about it, and perhaps even give up on speaking about it. So their joy first to speak the Arabic language. He instilled in the minds of his students that learning the Arabic language was very easy, but he instructed them to indulge the movements at the end of the words. His virtue adhered to the hadith of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace: It is easy, and do not be difficult, preach and do not alienate.
Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun also said that the key to speaking Arabic is smoothly applied in it. You will not be able to speak Arabic without the application, because learning Arabic is like learning to ride a bike. He who fears falling when learning to ride will not be able to ride it, but if he tries to ride it even if he falls from it many times, he can ride it even after a long time. As well as learning to speak Arabic even if he made a mistake repeatedly , but after a while he was able to get used to it and he will never make a mistake again.
Professor Muhammad Islah added by saying: Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun used to sit in his office more than he sat at home with his family, and he warned students to speak Arabic after every hour or two through loudspeaker such as advertisements at the airport or train station, meaning with a special well-known bell. Saying: Oh boys, speak Arabic and so he did it after every hour or two. This alert has a great impact on students, because the alarm is the director of the institute itself, which they loved, respected and honored. This indicates that his eminence paid great attention to the skill of speaking, even if the institute had special laws on speaking in the Arabic language, a warning and a reminder to all students not to forget to speak Arabic.
2- Establishing an oath for students and teachers to always speak Arabic
One of the efforts of His Eminence Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun to develop the skill of speaking is swearing or swearing. If he saw his virtue as a lack of communication in the Arabic language between students and teachers, he gathered them together in the mosque and encouraged them to speak Arabic by mentioning its importance and virtues, then he instructed them all to swear. Sometimes the oath is for a week or sometimes two weeks, and the most swearing time at that time is a month. And if he saw his virtue of using the Indonesian language more than using the Arabic language, he gathered them in the mosque and encouraged them to use the Arabic language in their daily speech, then he instructed them to swear by God so that the Arabic language would survive in the institute’s environment.
The oath did not harm the students and teachers because it did not decide anything except after deep thinking and after asking God Almighty. Therefore, his virtue determined the duration of the oath of a week or two, as mentioned previously. The word swearing was not a curse or perdition on the students. As for the swearing form, it is: “By God, by God, and by God, from now or from today to the next Sunday (for example) I will speak in Arabic unless I forget or speak with someone who does not know Arabic, or I do not understand the Arabic word. “. His eminence confirmed this swearing of the teachers more, because they are an example to the students, and he told them: How can the pupils be able to speak the Arabic language if the teachers are not an example and a good example for the students.
- Holding programs for the lecture, theater and morning debate
Among his teaching programs in developing the skill of speaking is also the lecture or rhetoric exercise in three languages, Arabic, Indonesian and local. This program is held after the evening prayer and after dinner in the mosque at approximately eight to nine o’clock. All the students participated in it, including those who gave the lecture in Arabic, some in Indonesian, and some in the local language. There is a jury of professors to evaluate these lectures. And his virtue was the one who always evaluated and corrected the lecture in Arabic. The aspects that his virtue valued were: tone, composition, and content. Then his eminence gave the gift to the best students in the lectures.
What was said by Mr. Shahri Sumouuddin the aforementioned was confirmed by Professor Muhammad Safi as follows: Among the efforts of Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoon to develop the skill of speech is also that he held competitions for giving lectures in the Arabic language, after his virtue taught all students to give a lecture in Arabic every week. Then he gave the best students in this competition a precious gift from him. And in the era of his eminence until now, the students of the House of Language and Da`wah Institute won the general victory in the Arabic language competitions for the national level many times, whether the competition was between government schools, Islamic universities and religious institutes, especially in the field of Arab lecturing. This can be seen in the YouTube videos on some websites.
Professor Shahri Sumouuddin said about the efforts of His Eminence Habib Hassan bin Ahmed Baharoun to develop the skill of speech. The play was held especially on the occasion of the Islamic New Year Muharram 1 And sometimes his eminence held that play by representing some of the topics from the book of modern dialogue, which he presented to the guests who came from the Middle East or the capital, Jakarta, as well as at the party of the last school year. The representatives of it were chosen from among the young students who were patriotic children and not children of Arabs residing in Indonesia, to show their skills from the success of the process of teaching the Arabic language in this institute only. Hand-picked from different cities and islands in Indonesia such as Java, Madura, Jakarta, etc. The play of these youngsters attracts the interest of these guests from the Middle East and elsewhere.
Among his other teaching programs to develop the skill of speaking is the establishment of the morning conversation, which means that the students face each other in the yard of their rooms and then practice the dialogue in Arabic for five minutes to ten minutes approximately every morning and every day. And the pupils were given freedom to choose the topic according to their desire. It also gave them the freedom to form the phrases they want to speak according to their ability and creativity, and they are not bound by the teacher or the book of dialogue that they have studied. The dialogue in which they were talking was a real and realistic dialogue as in their real life, and not a saved dialogue or the application of the dialogue examples found in the book of dialogue and others. And his eminence was supervising this program himself with patience and enthusiasm.